Public Outreach

Objective

Evaluate the risk reduction and cost benefits of purchasing property located above the groundwater plumes in order to reduce risks and costs in comparison to other cleanup alternatives. Information will be used in decision documents in a manner consistent with applicable requirements and procedures.

Background

The PGDP (Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant) Property Acquisition Study Project was conducted by the Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE) in order to meet requirements established in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, 2006 (US Senate Report 109-084), which states:

"Within the funds provided the Department (of Energy) shall undertake a study of the potential purchase of property or options to purchase property that is located above the plume of contaminated water near the [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant] facility site. The study shall evaluate the adequate protection of human health and the environment from exposure to contaminated groundwater and consider whether such purchase, when taking into account the cost of remediation, long-term surveillance, and maintenance, is in the best interest of taxpayers." For this study, the phrase "best interest of taxpayers" has been interpreted to mean "ensuring protection of human health and the environment from exposure to contaminated groundwater in the most cost effective manner possible.

Project Tasks

Consistent with the requirement to ensure protection of human health and the environment from exposure to contaminated groundwater in the most cost effective manner possible, the following seven tasks were completed:

  1. Identify property overlying and adjacent to the contaminated groundwater plumes and the potential surface water contaminant pathways near the Paducah facility.
  2. Delineate approaches for property purchase or for obtaining other legal interests in the private properties to limit or eliminate exposure to contaminated groundwater.
  3. Develop cost estimates for acquiring interests in private property based upon the approaches for property purchase or for obtaining other legal interests.
  4. Summarize remedial action assumptions for response actions directed at primary, secondary, and dissolved phase sources contributing contamination to groundwater.
  5. Utilize numerical modeling to determine how groundwater contaminant migration could differ in the future.
  6. Identify conditions necessary to render property acquisition cost-effective while ensuring protection for human health and the environment
  7. Complete an economic analysis of the potential purchase options through integration with information on groundwater response actions.

Project Methods

  • Initial groundwater modeling was used to estimate a probable maximum plume extent to be considered for property acquisition. Private parcels in the vicinity of the groundwater plumes were identified using information from the McCracken County Property Valuation Administrator (PVA) and a database was created for use with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to support the project.
  • Property acquisition strategies were considered and possible approaches for acquisition were described. Local cost estimates were developed using a mass appraisal approach based upon unit costs for property acquisition determined from available information associated with recent transactions.
  • Groundwater response actions previously identified by DOE to address contamination at PGDP were reviewed and summarized. Numerical modeling was used to forecast the maximum groundwater plume extents associated with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations of 5 µg/L or greater resulting from the application of response actions described in earlier DOE reports.
  • The private properties in the vicinity of the various predicted plumes were determined, and costs were quantified using the unit cost estimates. The costs for property acquisition were compared with the remediation cost estimates for the selected response actions and analyzed.

Project General Findings

  • An analysis of a range of possible property acquisition options under several different potential response action scenarios reveals that the total cost of acquiring properties (regardless of the approach) is essentially independent of the response actions considered. Thus, even if all contaminant sources were removed today, residual, dissolved-phased contamination will remain under impacted properties and will likely spread and impact new properties throughout the expected life of most current residents.
  • The property acquisition analysis suggests that fee simple interests, easements, and a combination of these approaches are possible alternatives to limit or prevent exposure to contaminated groundwater by potential receptors. Acquisition of other legal interests may not be as appropriate, but identifying and eliminating a variety of other pre-existing interests in the property may be necessary for the purchase of easements or fee simple interests.
  • While the property purchase alternatives are generally more expensive than restrictive easements, additional factors may directly influence such a comparison. For example, outright purchase of properties may minimize or eliminate future liabilities that may continue to exist with a restrictive easement alternative. Conversely, property purchase alternatives may carry with them additional potential maintenance or demolition costs that may be avoided through the use of restrictive easements. Due to future uncertainties associated with these issues, neither factor was explicitly quantified in this study, however both factors should be implicitly considered when weighing alternatives.
Maximum Modeled Extents of PGDP TCE Groundwater Plumes

Maximum Modeled Extents of PGDP TCE Groundwater Plumes
a) If No Actions are taken to remove or contain sources or treat the dissolve phase plume and
b) If Actions are taken to completely remove all SOURCE AREAS and the dissolved phase plumes.

Modeled Extents of PGDP TCE Groundwater Plumes in 100 years

Modeled Extents of PGDP TCE Groundwater Plumes in 100 years
a) If No Actions are taken to remove or contain sources or treat the dissolve phase plume and
b) If Actions are taken to completely remove all SOURCE AREAS and the dissolved phase plumes.

Detailed project methods, activities and conclusions are discussed in the Congressional Project Report, "Property Acquisition Study for Areas near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky".

The project methods and findings presented to DOE-HQ, DOE-PPPO, DOE-PGDP, PGDP-CAB, and the general public in a series of meetings are summarized in Preliminary Project Results Summary Presentation to DOE HQ, PGDP CAB, and Public. The first, of two, project Public Information Meetings was held in the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area lodge and was attended by more than 60 members of the local public which was the largest historical local audience for a DOE-PGDP meeting.

Faculty and staff from KRCEE, the University of Kentucky College of Law, College of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering, and College of Engineering provided their relevant expertise for the report:

  1. Legal framework for applicable property acquisition and access options
  2. Rural residential and agricultural property valuation
  3. Groundwater modeling to identify temporal and spatial contaminant extents relative to application of a variety of potential remedial actions
  4. GIS
  5. Marketing and Public Relations
Document TitleDescriptionYear
Property Acquisition Study for Areas near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, KentuckyCongressional Project Report2007
Preliminary Project Results Summary Presentation to DOE HQ, PGDP CAB, and PublicPublic Information Meeting Presentation2006
PGDP Property Acquisition Study: PGDP Citizens Advisory BoardProject Kickoff CAB Briefing Presentation2006
PGDP Property Acquisition Study: PGDP PRS BriefingProject Kickoff PRS Managers Briefing Presentation 2006
PGDP Property Acquisition Study: CAB PresentationProject Method Details Presentation to DOE-PPPO and PGDP CAB2006

Paducah Public End State Vision Project

Addressing the Challenges of Increasing Public Participation in PGDP's Future

Project Summary

Paducah Public End State Vision Project

The "Public End State" project focused on engaging the public in a participatory process to identify and assess community preferences for the future use of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, given the site's pending closure as a gaseous diffusion plant. In order to support informed decision making about future use of the PGDP, an extensive collection of site-specific information was compiled, presented at public meetings, and made available to participants on the Project website http://www.paducahvision.com. Project activities including meeting proceedings, assessment of feedback received from participants, and project recommendations are summarized in the project final report, Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site.

The Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE) project was designed to maximize citizen engagement, as characterized by the "Ladder of Citizen Participation." The Ladder considers different levels of public participation that have been observed in policy and infrastructure decision making processes. The three broad levels are Non- Participation, Tokenism, and Citizen Power. The public participants judged historical Paducah site public engagement activities between "Informing" and "Placation," on the Ladder of Citizen Participation which are within the broader "Tokenism" range.

The Project approach integrated Community-Based Participatory Communication (CBPC) methods, which use interviews, focus groups, and projective techniques to identify and interact with various community groups. The project also used Structure Public Involvement (SPI) to encourage each participant at public meetings to provide their personal inputs and to prevent co-optation of the public meeting process by any single interest group. This involved anonymous keypad "voting" on possible future use scenarios of the Paducah site.

Public participation included:

  • Interviews of 80 community leaders from 44 specific organizations and interest groups to develop a pilot test group composed of representatives from 16 stakeholder "clusters" (e.g., Education, Media, USEC Employees, Neighbors, Recreation Enthusiasts, CAB (Citizen Advisory Board) Members, DOE/Contractor Employees, etc.)
  • Meetings with 64 people grouped into eight stake-holder focus groups.
  • Two Community Information Meetings used to educate the audience members about the
    Paducah site.
  • Three Community Scenario Meetings at which audience members voted on 12 future use scenarios. (128 responses)
  • Development of a project website through which the public could vote on 12 future use scenarios. (713 distinct IP address hits; 97 responses)

Each of the 12 future use scenarios addressed a range of options for the disposal of legacy (i.e., burial ground) and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) wastes, and considered:

  1. shipping all future plant decommissioning waste offsite, keeping part of the decommissioning waste onsite, or keeping all decommissioning waste onsite
  2. excavating all of the legacy waste burial grounds or only excavating part of the legacy waste burial grounds

General conclusions from the 218 project respondents were:

  • Industrial land uses are more preferred than non-industrial land uses. There is a polarization in the public with some stakeholder groups strongly preferring industrial use and strongly opposed to non-industrial use, and some stakeholder groups strongly preferring non-industrial use and strongly opposed to industrial use. Preferences are impacted slightly by disposition of wastes.
  • Respondents favor removal of all of the burial grounds (i.e., legacy) waste.
  • The majority of the respondents (at least as characterized by the mean of their scores) prefer the removal of both legacy and D&D wastes from the site. However, if legacy waste is to be left on- site, the preference is to manage the waste in a "storage cell."

Public End State Project Information Website

The Public End State Project "Paducahvision" Website provides extensive site history, site process, site environmental impacts, public interaction, and regulatory process information. Site visitors can view video animations for the 12 future use scenarios and complete the on-line future use survey.

Document TitleDescriptionYear
Paducah's Future Vision Site "PaducahVision"Project Website2011
Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant SitePublic End State Project Final Report2011
PGDP Future Vision Project, a presentation to the PGDP CABProject Kickoff Briefing to PGDP CAB2009
Casewise Visual Evaluation for High-Performance Collaborative Visioning of PGDP Nuclear Enrichment Plant End StateASCE 2010 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress Papers Presentation2010
Use of community-based participatory communication to identify community values at a Superfund siteASCE 2010 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress Papers Presentation2010
Use of Structured Public Involvement to Identify Community Preferences for A Superfund Site End State VisionASCE 2010 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress Papers Presentation2010

Project Team

Dr. Lindell Ormsbee, UK-Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute, (principal investigator/project manager).
 
Dr. Chike Anyaegbunam, UK-College of Communications, (co-principal investigator for Community- Based Participatory Communication).
 
Dr. Ted Grossardt, UK-Kentucky Transportation Center, (co-principal investigator for Structured Public
Involvement).
 
Dr. Keiron Bailey, University of Arizona, (Casewise Visual Evaluation).
 
Ben Blandford, UK-Kentucky Transportation Center, (Structured Public Involvement technical support).

John R. Ripy, Jr., UK-Kentucky Transportation Center, (Structured Public Involvement technical
support).

Chas Hartman, UK-College of Communications, (transcription and preliminary data analysis).

Anna Goodman Hoover, UK-College of Communications & Kentucky Water Resources Research
Institute, (research project coordination and facilitation)

Jason Martin, UK-College of Communications, (transcription).

Mitchael Schwartz, UK-College of Communications, (focus group facilitation and logistics).

Public End State Project Closeout

Project Name

FY013 Task 1: PGPD Public End State Follow-Up/Close Out

Project Participants

DOE Administrative Liaison - Rich Bonczek, Rich.Bonczek@lex.doe.gov
KRCEE Administrative Liaison - Steve Hampson, Associate Director, UK/CAER/KRCEE

Principle Investigators

Dr. Ted Grossardt, Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky
John Ripy, Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky

Background

As part of the Public End State (PES) Project, Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE) was responsible for integrating public, regulatory, and technical community visions to produce a publicly approved Public End State Vision Report for the Paducah site. In the development of a final Public End State Vision Report, KRCEE was also responsible for facilitating meetings that incorporated public, stakeholder, and technical concerns, including approaches and information in "Politics of Cleanup" prepared by Energy Community Alliance, Inc. (2007). 

As part of the research effort, KRCEE implemented a four step process that involved:

1) stakeholder identification and listening,
2) focus groups,
3) public informational meetings, and
4) public scoring meetings.

To support the four-step process the PES project team developed the “Paducahvision” web site (http://www.paducahvision.com/).  The web site has been sustained to continue support of DOE’s public outreach efforts.  The final phase of the PES project is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) with the documents, future-use visualizations, and interactive public-feedback content on the web.

Relevance

This activity addresses Public Outreach and Support for the workforce, community, state, regulatory community and other stakeholders.

Tasks

Maintain the website, http://www.paducahvision.com/, for a period of 12 months

Provide “car-level” or “ground-level” visualization animations of the proposed Waste Disposal Options locations on the web site and to the DOE-PPPO.

Provide program input files for and vendor contact information for the 3D visualizations already developed and those developed for this task. 

Timeline

Project Start – October 1, 2012

Project Completion – September 30, 2013

Task/Deliverable Schedule

Task/Deliverable

Start Date

Completion Date

Start

01-Oct-12

30-Sept-13

Project Scope in Place

 

30-Sept-12

Develop New Visualizations for WD options

01-Oct-12

30-Nov-12

Host Web Site

01-Oct-12

30-Sept-13

Provide vendor contact information

01-Dec-12

01-Dec-12

Provide input files for 3D animation

01-Dec-12

15-Mar-13

REPORTING

  1. Draft and final revisions of the following deliverable materials shall be submitted to KRCEE
  2. Animated 3D “car-level” visualizations of prospective Waste Disposal facilities at the PGDP visualizations
  3. 3D visualization input files for existing and “car-level” visualizations of prospective Waste Disposal facilities at the PGDP. 
  4. 3D visualization program vendor information
  5. Quarterly meeting  participation and presentation thru Project Duration
  6. 1 presentation for new visualizations

All draft reports shall be submitted to the DOE-PPPO for factual accuracy review.  Final reports shall be provided to the the DOE-PPO, posted at the KRCEE website and submitted to Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).  Results from this task will also be posted to the Public Outreach website (http://www.paducahvision.com) and be made available for posting to the Paducah Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) website (http://pgdpcab.org/).

PGDP Video Oral Histories Project

PGDP Operations and History Documentary:

Under this task Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE) shall:

• Develop a film/video of the history, operations, and cleanup of PGDP.
• Develop a companion document providing the history, operations, and cleanup of the PGDP.

In completing this task, KRCEE shall include the PGDP Citizens' Advisory Board (CAB) in all aspects of the project and ensure oral histories are taken. Meeting(s) shall be held with the CAB or its chosen representative(s) prior to initiating the task. Additionally, KRCEE shall involve high school students in the completion of this task. The film/video and its companion document shall be completed by June 2011, in support of the September 2012 National CAB Chairs Meeting.

Draft and final revisions of the following reports shall be prepared and submitted by KRCEE:

• Work Plan for Development of a Documentary and Oral History of the PGDP.
• Documentary and Oral History of the PGDP.

The draft reports shall be submitted to U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO), for factual accuracy review.  Final reports shall be provided to the PPPO, posted to the KRCEE website and submitted to Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).  Results from this task will also be posted to the Public Outreach website (http: //www.paducahvision.com ) and be made available for posting to the CAB website (http://pgdpcab.org/).